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      當前位置:習古堂國學網>> 古文鑒賞>>

      《捕蛇者說》鑒賞

      捕蛇者說
      柳宗元

        永州之野產異蛇:黑質而白章,觸草木盡死;以 人,無御之者。然得而 之以為餌,可以已大風、攣 、鏤癘,去死肌,殺叁蟲。其始太醫以王命聚之,歲賦其二;募有能捕之者,當其租入。永之人爭奔走焉。

        有蔣氏者,專其利叁世矣。問之,則曰:“吾祖死於是,吾父死於是,今吾嗣為之十二年,幾死者數矣。”言之貌若甚戚者。余悲之,且曰:“若毒之乎?余將告於蒞事者,更若役,復若賦,則如何?”蔣氏大戚,汪然出涕,曰:“君將哀而生之乎?則吾斯役之不幸,未若復吾賦不幸之甚也。向吾不為斯役,則久已病矣。自吾氏叁世居是鄉,積於今六十歲矣。而鄉鄰之生日蹙,殫其地之出,竭其廬之入。號呼而轉徙,餓渴而頓踣。觸風雨,犯寒暑,呼噓毒癘,往往而死者,相藉也。曩與吾祖居者,今其室十無一焉。與吾父居者,今其室十無二叁焉。與吾居十二年者,今其室十無四五焉。非死即徙爾,而吾以捕蛇獨存。悍吏之來吾鄉,叫囂乎東西,隳突乎南北;嘩然而駭者,雖雞狗不得寧焉。吾恂恂而起,視其缶,而吾蛇尚存,則弛然臥。謹食之,時而獻焉。退而甘食其土之有,以盡吾齒。蓋一歲之犯死者二焉,其馀則熙熙而樂,豈若吾鄉鄰之旦旦有是哉。今雖死乎此,比吾鄉鄰之死則已後矣,又安敢毒耶?”

        余聞而愈悲,孔子曰:“苛政猛於虎也!”吾嘗疑乎是,今以蔣氏觀之,猶信。嗚呼!孰知賦斂之毒,有甚於是蛇者乎!筆為之說,以俟夫觀人風者得焉。

       

        【題解】《捕蛇者說》是柳宗元被傳誦不衰的著名篇章之一。文章通過對以捕蛇為業的蔣氏一家三代的悲慘遭遇,尖銳地揭露了從唐玄宗天寶后期至作者被貶官永州時約六十年間人民的苦難生活:苛重賦稅的壓榨,貪官悍吏的迫害,逼得勞動人民紛紛走上逃竄死亡的道路。本文生動而具體地表現了孔子所說“苛政猛于虎”的思想,具有很強烈的感染力量。
       
        永州之野產異蛇,黑質而白章,觸草木,盡死;以嚙人[1],無御之者。然得而臘之以為餌[2],可以已大風、攣踠、瘺、癘[3],去死肌,殺三蟲[4]。其始,太醫以王命聚之[5],歲賦其二。募有能捕之者,當其租入,永之人爭奔走焉。
        有蔣氏者,專其利三世矣。問之,則曰:“吾祖死于是,吾父死于是,今吾嗣為之十二年,幾死者數矣[6]。”言之,貌若甚戚者。
        余悲之,且曰:“若毒之乎?余將告于蒞事者[7],更若役,復若賦,則何如?”
        蔣氏大戚,汪然出涕曰:“君將哀而生之乎?則吾斯役之不幸,未若復吾賦不幸之甚也。向吾不為斯役[8],則久已病矣。自吾氏三世居是鄉,積于今六十歲矣,而鄉鄰之生日蹙。殫其地之出,竭其廬之入;號呼而轉徙,饑渴而頓踣[9];觸風雨,犯寒暑,呼噓毒癘,往往而死者相籍也。曩與吾祖居者,今其室十無一焉;與吾父居者,今其室十無二三焉;與吾居十二年者,今其室十無四五焉:非死而徙爾。而吾以捕蛇獨存。悍吏之來吾鄉,叫囂乎東西,隳突乎南北[10],嘩然而駭者,雖雞狗不得寧焉。吾恂恂而起[11],視其缶[12],而吾蛇尚存,則弛然而臥。謹食之,時而獻焉。退而甘食其土之有,以盡吾齒。蓋一歲之犯死者二焉,其余則熙熙而樂,豈若吾鄉鄰之旦旦有是哉!今雖死乎此,比吾鄉鄰之死則已后矣,又安敢毒耶?”
        余聞而愈悲?鬃釉唬“苛政猛于虎也[13]。”吾嘗疑乎是。今以蔣氏觀之,猶信。嗚呼!孰知賦斂之毒,有甚是蛇者乎!故為之說,以俟夫觀人風者得焉[14]。
      ——選自中華書局校點本《柳宗元集》
       
        永州的野外出產一種奇怪的蛇,它黑色的底子,白色的花紋,接觸到草木,草木全都枯死;咬到人,沒有能夠抗得住的。但是捉到它殺死風干做成藥物,卻可以治愈麻瘋、風濕性關節炎、頸部膿腫、毒瘡,除去壞死的肌肉,殺死危害人體的三尸蟲。當初,太醫奉皇帝的命令征集這種毒蛇,每年征收兩次。招募能捕這種蛇的人,可以用蛇充抵他應交納的租稅。永州的人都爭著去干這件差事。
        有一個姓蔣的,享有捕蛇免租的好處已經有三代了。我問起這件事,他說:“我祖父死在捕蛇這差事上,我父親死在捕蛇這差事上,如今我繼承祖業干這差事已經十二年,有好幾次也差點被蛇咬死。”說著,露出很悲傷的神色。
      我很憐憫他,就說:“你怨恨這差事嗎?我準備去告訴掌管這事的官吏,讓他更換你的差事,恢復你的賦稅,你看怎么樣?”
        姓蔣的一聽更加傷心,他眼淚汪汪地說:“你是哀憐我,想讓我活下去嗎?那么我這差事的不幸,遠比不上恢復我納稅的痛苦那樣厲害呀。假使當初我不干這捕蛇的差事,那早就困苦不堪了。從我家三代住在此地以來,算到現在已經六十年了,而鄉鄰們的生活卻一天比一天困難。他們拿出地里的全部出產,交出家里的一切收入;哭哭啼啼地背井離鄉,因饑渴勞累而倒斃在地;一路上被風吹雨淋,冒嚴寒酷暑,呼吸毒霧瘴氣,常常因此死掉的人橫七豎八地躺在路邊。從前和我祖父同居一村的人,現在十家中剩下的不到一家了;和我父親同居一村的人,現在十家中剩下的不到兩三家了;和我一起住了十二年的,如今十家中剩下的也不到四五家了:不是死了,就是搬走了。而我卻因為捕蛇才幸存下來。那兇狠的差役來到我們村里時,到處吵鬧,到處騷擾,嚇得人們亂喊亂叫,連雞狗也不得安寧。我只要小心翼翼地起來,看看那貯蛇的瓦罐子,見我捕的蛇還在里面,就放心倒頭大睡。平時我小心地喂養蛇,到規定交納的時間就去上交;丶液缶外蛔缘玫叵碛米约禾锏乩锍霎a的東西,這樣來安度天年。因為一年之中冒生命危險的時機只有兩次,其他的時候都過著心情舒暢的生活,哪會象我的鄉鄰們那樣天天擔驚受怕呢!我現在即使就死在捉蛇上面,比起我鄉鄰們的死亡那已晚得多了,又怎么敢怨恨呢!”   我聽了更加難過?鬃釉浾f過:“暴政比老虎更加兇惡啊。”我曾經懷疑這句話,F在拿姓蔣一家的遭遇來看,這話還真是確實的。唉,誰知道橫征暴斂對百姓的毒害比毒蛇更厲害呢!因此我才寫了這篇文章,留待那些考察民情風俗的官吏參考。(汪賢度)
       
      【注釋】
       。1]嚙(niè聶):咬。[2]臘(xī西):干肉。這里作動詞,有“風干”之意。[3]大風:麻瘋病。攣踠(luánwǎn巒宛):一種手腳拳曲不能伸直的病。瘺:頸部腫爛流膿。癘:惡瘡。[4]三蟲:古時道家迷信的說法,認為人的腦、胸、腹三部分有“三尸蟲”,此蟲作崇,有關部分即得病。[5]太醫:唐代設太醫署,有令二人,其下醫師為皇室治病。[6]數(shuò朔):多次。[7]蒞(lì利)事者:管這事的官吏。[8]向:從前。這里有假使的意思。[9]頓:勞累。踣(bó。旱箶。[10]隳(huī灰)突:騷擾。[11]恂恂(xú巡):小心謹慎的樣子。[12]缶(fǒu否):小口大腹的瓦罐。[13]苛政猛于虎也:據《禮記·檀弓下》記載:“孔子過泰山側,有婦人哭于墓者而哀。夫子式而聽之,使子路問之,曰:‘子之哭也,壹似重有憂者?’而曰:‘然。昔者吾舅死于虎,吾夫又死焉,今吾子又死焉。’夫子曰:‘何為不去也?’曰:‘無苛政。’夫子曰:‘小子識之,苛政猛于虎也。’”[14]人風:民風。唐人避唐太宗李世民的名諱,凡遇“民”字皆寫為“人。?
       

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