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      當前位置:習古堂國學網>> 歷史傳記>>

      《左傳》

      書名:《左傳》
      作者:左丘明
       
      目錄
       

          《左傳》是記載中國春秋時期歷史的編年史書。多用事實解釋《春秋》,為儒家重要經典之一。西漢時稱《左氏春秋》,東漢以后改稱《春秋左氏傳》,簡稱《左傳》。據西漢史學家司馬遷說,作者是魯國的左丘明。但左丘明是春秋末年人,《左傳》卻提到戰國初期的某些史實,故許多學者認為此說不可信。清末康有為斷言它是西漢末劉歆偽造。但在劉歆以前《左傳》已被許多人抄撮或征引過,故康氏之說也難成立。當代學者多認為是戰國初年人所作。據楊伯峻考證,大約作于公元前403~前386年之間。

          《左傳》是記錄春秋時期社會狀況的重要典籍。其中保存了許多寶貴的哲學思想資料,反映了西周末期已開始動搖的宗教天道觀的進一步瓦解,記錄了唯物主義的陰陽五行說、無神論和樸素辯證法思想的發展。例如,周內史叔興認為“隕石” 等現象是 “陰陽之事”,并非鬼神借以預示吉兇;“吉兇由人”。秦國醫和認為疾病不是鬼神作祟,而是陰、陽、風、雨、晦、明“六氣”作用的結果。魯國梓慎和叔孫昭子認為日蝕和水災、旱災是陰陽相克引起的。晉國史墨認為“地有五行”。宋國子罕認為“天生五材”,把由五行構成的自然界看作是人類賴以生存的物質基礎。 鄭國子產認為 “天道遠、人道邇”,用寶物祭神不足禳除火災。齊國晏嬰在論述“和”與“同”的區別時,表述了相異、相反的事物可以“相成”、“相濟”的樸素辯證思想。晉國史墨還提出了“社稷無常奉,君臣無常位”的變化觀點。

       
       
      ------分隔線----------------------------
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