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      菩薩蠻·書江西造口壁|辛棄疾|注釋|翻譯|賞析|講解

      【作品簡介】

        《菩薩蠻·書江西造口壁》由辛棄疾創作,被選入《宋詞三百首》。宋孝宗淳熙三年(1176),辛棄疾任江西提點刑獄,駐節贛州,登郁孤臺而寫下這首詞。詞人先從眺望和聯想中,引起對往事的回想和對故土的思念。又以“青山”兩句,喻主和派為遮掩恢復之志的“青山”,但它擋不住北伐的呼聲。到最后,還是樂不思蜀的鷓鴣占了上風,此鷓鴣是影射最高統冶者。因此,最后詞人還是陷在哀愁中。全詞由江水起興,鷓鴣點睛,概括了人民抗敵決心不可阻擋但統治者卻大違人心的歷史事實。更多宋詞賞析文章敬請關注習古堂國學網的《宋詞三百首》專欄。

       

      【原文】

        《菩薩蠻·書江西造口壁①》

        作者:辛棄疾

        郁孤臺②下清江③水,中間多少行人淚?西北望長安④,可憐⑤無數山⑥。

        青山遮不住,畢竟東流去⑦。江晚正愁余⑧,山深聞鷓鴣(zhè gū)⑨。

       

       

      【注釋】

      ①造口:即皂口,鎮名。在今江西省萬安縣西南60里處。
      ②郁孤臺:古臺名,在今江西贛州市西南的賀蘭山上,因“隆阜郁然,孤起平地數丈”而得名。
      ③清江:贛江與袁江合流處舊稱清江。
      ④長安:今陜西省西安市;為漢唐故都。這里指淪于敵手的宋國都城汴梁。
      ⑤可憐:可惜。
      ⑥無數山:這里指投降派(也可理解為北方淪陷國土)。
      ⑦畢竟東流去:暗指力主抗金的潮流不可阻擋。
      ⑧愁余:使我感到憂愁。(“余”也有寫作“予”)
      ⑨鷓鴣(zhè gū):鳥名,傳說它的叫聲是“行不得也哥哥”,啼聲異常凄苦。

       

      【翻譯】

        郁孤臺下這贛江的流水,水中有多少行人的眼淚。我舉頭眺望西北的長安,可惜只見到無數的青山。但青山怎能把江水擋住,浩浩江水終究向東流去。江邊日晚我正滿懷憂愁,聽到深山傳來凄涼的鷓鴣聲。

       

      【講解】

        “造口”,即造口鎮,在今江西省萬安縣西南。宋孝宗淳熙三年(一一七六),作者任江西提點刑獄(掌管刑法獄訟的官吏)時,途經造口。在宋高宗建炎三年(一一二九),金兵南下,攻入江西。隆裕太后由南昌倉皇南逃,金兵一直深入到造口。作者想起當時人民的苦難,寫了這首詞,題在墻壁上。
        從這首詞里可以看出,作者懷念中原故土的感情和廣大人民是一致的。
        它反映了四十年來,由于金兵南侵,祖國南北分裂,廣大人民妻離子散,流離失所的痛苦生活,也反映了作者始終堅持抗金立場,并為不能實現收復中原的愿望而感到無限痛苦的心情。這種強烈的愛國思想,也正是辛棄疾作品中人民性的具體表現。
        上片四句在寫法上,由近及遠,又由遠及近。“郁孤臺下清江水,中間多少行人淚。”意思是說:郁孤臺下清江里的流水呵!你中間有多少逃難的人們流下的眼淚!作者把眼前清江的流水,和四十年前人民在兵荒馬亂中流下的眼淚聯系在一起,這就更能夠表現出當時人民受到的極大痛苦。四十年來,廣大人民多么盼望著能恢復故土、統一祖國!然而,南宋當局根本不打算收復失地,只想在杭州過茍延殘喘、偷安一時的生活。因此,作者撫今憶昔,感慨很深,在悲憤交集的感情驅使下,又寫出了“西北望長安,可憐無數山”兩句,以抒發對中原淪陷區的深切懷念。“郁孤臺”,古臺名,在今江西省贛州市西南賀蘭山頂。“清江”,即贛江,流經贛州市和郁孤臺下,向東北流入鄱陽湖。“長安”,即今陜西省西安市,西漢、隋、唐都建都在此。唐朝李勉曾經登上郁孤臺想望長安。這里的“西北望長安”,是想望北方淪陷區,反映作者的愛國感情。“可憐無數山”意思是說:很可惜被千山萬嶺遮住了視線。“可憐”,作可惜講。從望不見長安到視線被無數山遮住,里邊含有收復中原的壯志受到種種阻礙、無法實現的感嘆。更多宋詞賞析文章敬請關注習古堂國學網的《宋詞三百首》專欄。
        下片緊接著上片,繼續抒發對中原故土的懷念。“青山遮不住,畢竟東流去”兩句是比喻句,意思是說:滾滾的江水,沖破了山巒疊嶂,在奔騰向前。它象征著抗金的正義事業,必然會克服一切阻力,取得最后的勝利。這里表明作者對恢復中原充滿了堅定的信心。但是,作者并沒有脫離現實,沉醉于未來理想的幻想之中。十幾年來,他目睹了抗金事業受到的重重阻力,不禁又愁緒滿懷。“江晚正愁余,山深聞鷓鴣”兩句說:傍晚,我在江邊徘徊,正在為了不能實現恢復大計愁苦著呢,可是恰巧,又從山的深處,傳來鷓鴣鳥的哀鳴。這叫聲聽起來,仿佛是“行不得也哥哥”。從鷓鴣的悲鳴聲中,恰好透露出作者想收復失地,但又身不由己的矛盾心情。
        這首詞寫得非常質樸、自然、流暢。尤其“青山遮不住,畢竟東流去”
        兩句,十分含蓄,耐人尋味。

       

      【賞析】

        辛棄疾此首《菩薩蠻》,用極高明之比興藝術,寫極深沉之愛國情思,無愧為詞中瑰寶。
        詞題“書江西造口壁”,起寫郁孤臺與清江。造口一名皂口 ,在江西萬安縣西南六十里(《萬安縣志 》)。詞中的郁孤臺在贛州城西北角(《嘉靖贛州府志圖 》),因“隆阜郁然,孤起平地數丈”得名。“唐李勉為虔州(即贛州)剌史時,登臨北望,慨然曰:‘余雖不及子牟 ,而心在魏闕一也 。’改郁孤為望闕。”(《方輿勝覽》)清江即贛江。章、貢二水抱贛州城而流 ,至郁孤臺下匯為贛江北流,經造口、萬安、太和、吉州(治廬陵,今吉安 )、隆興府(即洪州,今南昌市 ),入鄱陽湖注入長江。淳熙二、三年間(1175-1176 ),詞人提點江西刑獄,駐節贛州,書此詞于造口壁,當在此時。
        南宋羅大經《鶴林玉露·辛幼安詞》條云 :“其題江西造口壁詞云云。蓋南渡之初,虜人追隆祐太后(哲宗孟后,高宗伯母)御舟至造口,不及而還,幼安因此起興 。”此一記載對體會本詞意蘊,實有重要意義!端问贰犯咦诩o及后妃傳載:建炎三年(1129)八月 ,“會防秋迫,命劉寧止制置江浙,衛太后往洪州 ,騰康、劉玨權知三省樞密院事從行 。閏八月,高宗亦離建康(今南京市)赴浙西。時金兵分兩路大舉南侵,十月,西路金兵自黃州(今湖北黃岡)渡江,直奔洪州追隆祐太后 。“康、玨奉太后行次吉州,金人追急,太后乘舟夜行。”《三朝北盟會編》建炎三年十一月二十三日載:“質明,至太和縣(去吉州八十里!短涂h志》),又進至萬安縣(去太和一百里!度f安縣志》),兵衛不滿百人,滕康、劉玨皆竄山谷中。金人追至太和縣,太后乃自萬安縣至皂口,舍舟而陸,遂幸虔州(去萬安凡二百四十里!囤M州府志》)。”《宋史·后妃傳》:“太后及潘妃以農夫肩輿而行。”《宋史·胡銓傳 》:“銓募鄉兵助官軍捍御金兵 ,太后得脫幸虔。”史書所記金兵追至太和 ,與羅氏所記追至造口稍有不合。但羅氏為南宋廬陵人,又曾任江西撫州軍事推官,其所記信實與否,尚不妨存疑。況且金兵既至太和,其前鋒追至南一百六十里之造口,也未始無此可能。無論金兵是否追至造口,隆祐太后被追至造口時情勢危急,以致舍舟以農夫肩輿而行,此是鐵案,史無異辭。尤要者,應知隆祐其人并建炎年間形勢。當靖康二年(1127)金兵入汴擄徽欽二宗北去,北宋滅亡之際 ,隆祐以廢后幸免,垂簾聽政,迎立康王,是為高宗。有人請立皇太子,隆祐拒之!端问·后妃傳》記其言曰:“今強敵在外,我以婦人抱三歲小兒聽政,將何以令天下?”其告天下手詔曰:“雖舉族有北轅之恤,而敷天同左袒之心。”又曰:“漢家之厄十世,宜光武之中興;獻公之子九人,唯重耳之獨在。”《鶴林玉露·建炎登極》條云:“事詞的切,讀之感動,蓋中興之一助也 。”陳寅恪《論再生緣》亦謂 :“維系人心,抵御外侮”,“所以為當時及后世所傳誦。”故史稱隆祐:“國有事變,必此人當之 。”建炎三年,西路金兵窮追隆祐,東路金兵則渡江陷建康、臨安,高宗被迫浮舟海上。此誠南宋政權出存亡危急之秋。故當作者身臨造口,懷想隆祐被追至此,“因此感興 ”,題詞于壁,實情理之所必然。羅氏所記大體可信,詞題六字即為本證。
        “郁孤臺下清江水。”起筆橫絕。由于漢字形、聲、義具體可感之特質,尤其郁(鬱)有郁勃、沉郁之意,孤有巍巍獨立之感,郁孤臺三字劈面便凸起一座郁然孤峙之高臺 。詞人調動此三字打頭陣,顯然有滿腔磅礴之激憤 ,勢不能不用此突兀之筆也。進而寫出臺下之清江水!度f安縣志》云:“贛水入萬安境,初落平廣,奔激響溜 。”寫出此一江激流,詞境遂從百余里外之郁孤臺,順勢收至眼前之造口。造口,詞境之核心也。故又縱筆寫出 :“中間多少行人淚 。”行人淚三字,直點造口當年事。詞人身臨隆祐太后被追之地,痛感建炎國脈如縷之危,憤金兵之猖狂,羞國恥之未雪,乃將滿懷之悲憤,化為此悲涼之句。在詞人之心魂中,此一江流水,竟為行人流不盡之傷心淚。行人淚意蘊深廣,不必專言隆祐。在建炎年間四海南奔之際,自中原至江淮而江南,不知有多少行人流下無數傷心淚呵。由此想來,便覺隆祐被追至造口,又正是那一存亡危急之秋之象征。無疑此一江行人淚中,也有詞人之悲淚呵。“西北望長安,可憐無數山 。”長安指汴京,西北望猶言直北望。詞人因回想隆祐被追而念及神州陸沉,獨立造口仰望汴京亦猶杜老之獨立夔州仰望長安。抬望眼,遙望長安,境界頓時無限高遠。然而,可惜有無數青山重重遮攔,望不見也,境界遂一變而為具有封閉式之意味,頓挫極有力。歇拍雖暗用李勉登郁孤臺望闕之故事,卻寫出自己之滿懷忠憤。卓人月《詞統》云:“忠憤之氣,拂拂指端。”極是。更多宋詞賞析文章敬請關注習古堂國學網的《宋詞三百首》專欄。
        “青山遮不住,畢竟東流去 。”贛江北流,此言東流,詞人寫胸懷,正不必拘泥。無數青山雖可遮住長安,但終究遮不住一江之水向東流。換頭是寫眼前景,若言有寄托,則似難以指實。若言無寄托,則遮不住與畢竟二語,又明顯帶有感情色彩。周濟《宋四家詞選》云:“借水怨山。”可謂具眼。此詞句句不離山水。試體味遮不住三字,將青山周匝圍堵之感一筆推去,畢竟二字更見深沉有力。返觀上闋,清江水既為行人淚之象喻,則東流去之江水如有所喻,當喻祖國一方。無數青山,詞人既嘆其遮住長安,更道出其遮不住東流,則其所喻當指敵人。在詞人潛伏意識中,當并指投降派。東流去三字尤可體味 !渡袝·禹貢》云:“江漢朝宗于海。”在中國文化傳統中,江河行地與日月經天同為“天行健”之體現,故“君子以自強不息”(《息·系辭》)。杜老《長江二首》云:“朝宗人共挹,盜賊爾誰尊?”“浩浩終不息,乃知東極深。眾流歸海意,萬國奉君心。”故必言寄托,則換頭托意,當以江水東流喻正義所向也。然而時局并不樂觀,詞人心情并不輕松。“江晚正愁余,山深聞鷓鴣。”詞情詞境又作一大頓挫。江晚山深,此一暮色蒼茫又具封閉式意味之境界,無異為詞人沉郁苦悶之孤懷寫照,而暗應合上闋開頭之郁孤臺意象。正愁余,語本《楚辭·九歌·湘夫人 》:“目眇眇兮愁予。”楚騷哀怨要眇之色調,愈添意境沉郁凄迷之氛圍。更哪堪聞亂山深處鷓鴣聲聲 :“行不得也哥哥”!肚萁洝窂埲A注 :“鷓鴣飛必南向,其志懷南,不徂北也。”白居易《山鷓鴣》:“啼到曉,唯能愁北人,南人慣聞如不聞 。”鷓鴣聲聲,其呼喚詞人莫忘南歸之懷抱耶?抑鉤起其志業未就之忠憤耶?或如山那畔中原父老同胞之哀告耶?實難作一指實。但結筆寫出一懷愁苦則可斷言。而此一懷愁苦,實朝廷一味妥協,中原久未光復有以致之,亦可斷言。一結悲涼無已。
        梁啟超云 :“《菩薩蠻 》如此大聲鏜鞳,未曾有也。”(《藝蘅館詞選》)此詞發抒對建炎年間國事艱危之沉痛追懷,對靖康以來失去國土之深情縈念,故此一習用已久陶寫兒女柔情之小令,竟為南宋愛國精神深沉凝聚之絕唱。詞中運用比興手法,以眼前景道心上事,達到比興傳統意內言外之極高境界。其眼前景不過是清江水、無數山,心上事則包舉家國之悲今昔之感種種意念,而一并托諸眼前景寫出。顯有寄托,又難以一一指實。但其主要寓托則可體認,其一懷襟抱亦可領會。此種以全幅意境寓寫整個襟抱、運用比興寄托又未必一一指實之藝術造詣,實為中國美學理想之一體現。全詞一片神行又潛氣內轉,兼有神理高絕與沉郁頓挫之美,在詞史上完全可與李太白同調詞相媲美。

       

      【作者介紹】

        辛棄疾(1140-1207)南宋詞人。原字坦夫,改字幼安,別號稼軒,歷城(今山東濟南)人。出生時,中原已為金兵所占。21歲參加抗金義軍,不久歸南宋。歷任湖北、江西、湖南、福建、浙東安撫使等職。一生力主抗金。曾上《美芹十論》與《九議》,條陳戰守之策,顯示其卓越軍事才能與愛國熱忱。其詞抒寫力圖恢復國家統一的愛國熱情,傾訴壯志難酬的悲憤,對當時執政者的屈辱求和頗多譴責;也有不少吟詠祖國河山的作品。題材廣闊又善化用前人典故入詞,風格沉雄豪邁又不乏細膩柔媚之處。作品集有《稼軒長短句》,今人輯有《辛稼軒詩文鈔存》。

        辛棄疾存詞600多首。強烈的愛國主義思想和戰斗精神是辛詞的基本思想內容。他是中國歷史上偉大的豪放派詞人、愛國者、軍事家和政治家。更多唐詩宋詞賞析敬請關注習古堂國學網(www.zhaopin66.com)的相關文章。

        辛棄疾在文學上與蘇軾齊名,號稱“蘇辛”,與李清照并稱“濟南二安”。有人這樣贊美過他:稼軒者,人中之杰,詞中之龍。劉辰翁《辛稼軒詞序》說:“自辛稼軒前,用一語如此者,必且掩口。及稼軒,橫豎爛熳,乃如禪宗棒喝,頭頭皆是;又如悲笳萬鼓,平生不平事并巵酒,但覺賓主酣暢,談不暇顧。詞至此亦足矣。”

       

      【宋詞英譯】

      許淵沖  譯:

       

      Below the Gloomy Terrace flow two rivers clear,

      The tears of refugees were shed when they were here!

      I gaze afar on land long lost in the northwest,

      Alas! I see but hill on hill and crest on crest.

       

      But blue hills can't stop water flowing,

      Eastward the river keeps on going.

      At dusk the river grieves me still,

      The partridges call in the hill.

       

      卓振英譯:


      Buddhist Dance

      An Inscription on the Cliff of Zaokou in Jiangxi

       

      Below the Yugu Terrace th’ Clear River gushes ahead,

      Containing boundless bitter tears which refugees have shed!

      I gaze into the northwest, where Chang’an lies,

      But alas, ranges of mountains block my eyes.

       

      The river, leaping and rolling, surges east,

      By the mountains its current will ne’er be ceas’d.

      Dusk falling on th’ river, my heart sorrow fills,

      When partridges are heard deep deep in the hills.

       

      徐忠杰譯:

       

      Written on the Cliff at Zaokou

       

      On the road from Yugu Heights,

      That direct to Qing Jiang led,

      People fled from invasion,

      Many tears they must have shed.

       

      If we look toward the northwest—

      To see Chang’an—ours by right.

      Numberless hills before us—

      Must have blotted out the sight.

       

      The strong waters of Qingjiang—

      Those sturdy hills couldn’t impound.

      Qingjiang forced its way through them.

      As it rushed forth, eastward bound.

       

      Before the river, at dusk—

      I wasn’t sure what next to do.

      Deep in the surrounding hills—

      Partridges uttered their coo.

       

      【詞牌簡介】

        菩薩蠻:詞牌名。唐教坊曲名,后用為詞牌。亦作菩薩鬘(mán),又名《子夜歌》、《花間意》、《重疊金》等。唐宣宗(李忱)大中年間(公元847--859年),女蠻國派遣使者進貢,她們身上披掛著珠寶,頭上戴著金冠,梳著高高的發髻(jì),號稱菩薩蠻隊,當時教坊就因此制成《菩薩蠻曲》,于是《菩薩蠻》就成了詞牌名。菩薩蠻雙調四十四字,前后闕均兩仄韻轉兩平韻。另有《菩薩蠻引》、《菩薩蠻慢》。又:曲牌名。屬北曲正宮。字句格律與詞牌前半闋同,用在套曲中。

      本調四十四字,為詞調中之最古者,即以五七言組成;通篇兩句一韻,凡四易韻,兩平兩仄。第一、二句即為七言仄句。第三句為仄起之五言句,換用平韻。第四句為五言拗句。后半第一句為平起仄韻之五言句。第二句為仄起仄韻之五言句。第三、四句與前半第三四句同。此首相傳為太白創作,但這兩首詞沒有收入宋本《李太白集》,而始見于宋人筆記,是否李白作品,頗滋后世疑問。明代胡應麟、胡震亨等已疑為后人偽托,F代學者也頗多不信為李白所作,一個主要理由是唐代前期文人詞尚處在萌芽狀態,文辭體制,都較簡樸,而這兩首詞卻是用雙調,換韻,語言精練,描寫細致,在藝術上很成熟,顧按上述,調之創始,在唐 大中初,則白又何以見此詞調?【詞苑叢談】謂:「今詩余名﹝望江南﹞外,﹝菩薩蠻﹞、﹝憶秦娥﹞稱最古,以【草堂】二詞出太白也。予謂太白在當時,直以風雅自任,即近體盛行七言律,鄙不屑為,寧肯事此?且二詞雖工麗,而氣衰颯,于太白超然之致,不啻穹壤;藉令真出青蓮,必不作如是語。詳其意調,絕類溫方城輩,蓋晚唐詞嫁名太白耳!拱粗T上,引【北夢瑣言】與此說相合。近世胡適作【詞選】亦云然。

       

      【格律】

      定格:

        菩薩蠻·閨情 (唐) 李白

        平林漠漠煙如織,

        ⊙○⊙●○○▲ (仄韻)

        寒山一帶傷心碧。

        ○○●●○○▲ (協仄韻)

        暝色入高樓,

        ●●●○△ (換平韻)

        有人樓上愁。

        ●○○●△ (協平韻)

        玉階空佇立,

        ⊙○○●▲ (三換仄)

        宿鳥歸飛急。

        ⊙●○○▲ (協三仄)

        何處是歸程,

        ⊙●●○△ (四換平)

        長亭連短亭。

          ⊙○○●△ (協四平)

      ------分隔線----------------------------
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