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      李白 杜甫 白居易 李商隱 杜牧 陸游 孟浩然 劉禹錫 溫庭筠 王之渙 高適 劉長卿 韋應物 岑參 元稹 李賀 張若虛 王昌齡 張九齡 陶淵明 歐陽修 陳子昂 王維 韓愈 柳宗元 屈原 蘇軾 曹操
      當前位置:習古堂國學網>> 唐詩賞析>>

      《題菊花》黃巢唐詩鑒賞

      【作品介紹】

        《題菊花》是唐末農民起義領袖黃巢創作的一首詩,載于《全唐詩》卷七百三十三。此詩采用比興手法,托物言志,抒發了作者力圖主宰社會的豪邁思想。其不同凡響之處在于它展開了充滿浪漫主義激情的大膽想象:一旦自己成為青帝(春神)就要讓菊花與桃花在大好春光中開放,讓菊花也同樣享受到蕊暖香濃蜂蝶繞叢的歡樂。這種對不公正“天道”的大膽否定和對理想中的美好世界的熱烈憧憬,集中地反映出詩人超越封建文人價值觀念的遠見卓識和勇于掌握、改變自身命運的雄偉膽略。

       

      【原文】

      題菊花

       

      颯颯西風滿院栽⑴,蕊寒香冷蝶難來⑵。

      他年我若為青帝⑶, 報與桃花一處開⑷。

       

      【注釋】

      ⑴颯颯:形容風聲。

      ⑵蕊:花心兒。

      ⑶青帝:司春之神。古代傳說中的五天帝之一,住在東方,主行春天時令。

      ⑷報:告訴,告知,這里有命令的意思。

       

      【白話譯文】

        在秋天颯颯的西風中院內開滿了菊花。蝴蝶早已隨夏日遠去,蕊寒香冷的菊花只能在秋風里孤芳自賞。如果有一天我當了分管春天的天神青帝,那么一定要讓這美麗多姿的菊花同桃花一樣開在春天里。

       

      【創作背景】

        宋張端義《貴耳集》卷下記載:“巢五歲侍翁父為菊花聯句,翁思索未至,巢信口應曰:‘堪與百花為總首,自然天賜赭黃衣。’巢之父怪欲擊巢,乃翁曰:‘孫能詩,但未知輕重,可令再賦一篇。’巢應之曰:‘颯颯西風滿院栽,蕊寒香冷蝶難來。他年我若為青帝,報與桃花一處開。’”這里說這首詩作于黃巢五歲時,不可信。此詩當作于黃巢年青時,發動起義之前。

       

      【賞析】

        唐末詩人林寬有這樣兩句詩:“莫言馬上得天下,自古英雄皆解詩。”古往今來,確有不少能“解詩”的英雄,唐末農民起義領袖黃巢就是其中突出的一個。自從陶淵明“采菊東籬下,悠然見南山”的名句一出,菊花就和孤標傲世的高士、隱者結下了不解之緣,幾乎成了封建文人孤高絕俗精神的一種象征。黃巢的菊花詩,卻完全脫出了同類作品的窠臼,表現出全新的思想境界和藝術風格。

        第一句寫滿院菊花在颯颯秋風中開放。“西風”點明節令,逗起下句;“滿院”極言其多。說“栽”而不說“開”,是避免與末句重韻,同時“栽”字本身也給人一種挺立勁拔之感。寫菊花迎風霜開放,以顯示其勁節,這在文人的詠菊詩中也不難見到;但“滿院栽”卻不同于文人詩中菊花的形象。無論是表現“孤標傲世”之情,“孤高絕俗”之態或“孤孑無伴”之感,往往脫離不了一個“孤”字。黃巢的詩獨說“滿院栽”,是因為在他心目中,這菊花是勞苦大眾的象征,與“孤”字無緣。

        菊花迎風霜開放,固然顯出它的勁節,但時值寒秋,“蕊寒香冷蝶難來”,卻是極大的憾事。在颯颯秋風中,菊花似乎帶著寒意,散發著幽冷細微的芳香,不象在風和日麗的春天開放的百花,濃香競發,因此蝴蝶也就難得飛來采掇菊花的幽芳了。在舊文人的筆下,這個事實通?偸且饍煞N感情:孤芳自賞與孤孑不偶。作者的感情有別于此。在他看來,“蕊寒香冷”是因為菊花開放在寒冷的季節,他自不免為菊花的開不逢時而惋惜、而不平。

        第三、四兩句正是上述感情的自然發展,揭示環境的寒冷和菊花命運的不公平。作者想象有朝一日自己作了“青帝”(司春之神),就要讓菊花和桃花一起在春天開放。這一充滿強烈浪漫主義激情的想象,集中地表達了作者的宏偉抱負。統觀全詩,寓意是比較明顯的。詩中的菊花,是當時社會上千千萬萬處于底層的人民的化身。作者既贊賞他們迎風霜而開放的頑強生命力,又深深為他們所處的環境、所遭的命運而憤激不平,立志要徹底加以改變。所謂“為青帝”,不妨看作建立農民革命政權的形象化表述。作者想象,到了那一天,廣大勞苦大眾就都能生活在溫暖的春天里。值得注意的是,這里還體現了農民樸素的平等觀念。因為在作者看來,菊花和桃花同為百花之一,理應享受同樣的待遇,菊花獨處寒秋,蕊寒香冷,實在是天公極大的不公。因此他決心要讓菊花同桃花一樣享受春天的溫暖。不妨認為,這是詩化了的農民平等思想。

        這里還有一個靠誰來改變命運的問題。是祈求天公的同情與憐憫,還是“我為青帝”,取而代之,其間存在著做命運的奴隸和做命運的主人的區別。詩的作者說:“我為青帝”,這豪邁的語言,正體現了農民階級領袖人物推翻舊政權的決心和信心。而這一點,也正是一切封建文人所不能超越的鐵門檻。

        這首詩所抒寫的思想感情是非常豪壯的,它使生活在封建社會中的文人學士表達自己胸襟抱負的各種豪言壯語都相形失色。但它并不流于粗豪,仍不失含蘊。這是因為詩中成功地運用了比興手法,而比興本身又融合著作者對生活的獨特感受與理解的緣故。

       

      【作者介紹】

         黃巢(?—884),唐末農民起義領袖 。曹州冤句 (今山東省荷澤縣西南)人,出 生于鹽商家庭,能詩 文 ,精武藝 。曾應進士試 ,不第。唐僖宗乾符二年 (875)參加王仙芝領導的農民起義。王犧牲后,被推為王,號沖天大將軍,年號王霸。廣明元年(880)攻占唐都長安,即帝位,國號大齊,年號金統 。后因內 部分裂、大將朱溫叛變投敵等原因,起義軍屢戰失利,于中和四年(884)自殺于泰山狼虎谷!度圃姟蜂洿嫫湓娙。更多古詩詞賞析內容請關注“習古堂國學網”(www.zhaopin66.com)

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