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      學詩百法 簡明詞譜 花間詞 玉壺清話

      "花間詞派"介紹

        花間詞派是什么?

        "花間詞"派是晚唐五代奉溫庭筠為鼻祖而進行詞的創作的一個文人詞派。花間派產生于西蜀,得名于趙崇祚編輯的《花間集》。主要的詞人還有孫光憲、李珣、牛希濟。這一詞派題材狹窄、情致單調。大都以婉約的表達手法,寫女性的美貌和服飾以及他們的離愁別恨。在這些詞中描繪景物富麗、意象繁多、構圖華美、刻畫工細,能喚起讀者視覺、聽覺、嗅覺的美感。由于注重錘煉文字、音韻,從而形成隱約迷離幽深的意境。對后世的文人詞產生、發展有一定的影響。

       

        花間詞派的起源

        花間詞誕生于晚唐五代,花間詞派作為最早的流派之一在詞的發展史上占有重要的地位,有著巨大的影響。晚唐五代時,南方相對安定的社會環境為詞的發展提供了有利的外部條件,相繼出現了西蜀和南唐兩個詞壇中心。五代趙崇祚撰《花間集》,收集了溫庭筠、皇甫松、孫光憲、韋莊、和凝、薛昭蘊、牛嶠、張泌、毛文錫、牛希濟、歐陽炯、顧夐、魏承班、鹿虔扆、閻選、尹鶚、毛熙震、李珣等人的500首詞作。其中除溫庭筠、皇甫松、孫光憲之外,都是集中在西蜀的文人,稱為“花間派”。

        花間派中“花間”兩字出自花間詞人張泌“還似花間見,雙雙對對飛。”一句?v觀花間詞派一十八位詞人,可以發現他們的作品詞風浮艷,多寫情愛。大多數為所謂男詞人寫女性生活的“閨情”代言體。更多花間詞派的知識請關注習古堂國學網的相關文章。

        花間詞派是唐末五代詞派。因后蜀趙崇祚所編《花間集》而得名。主要詞人有韋莊、牛希濟、歐陽炯、鹿虔扆、李 、牛嶠等。“花間”詞人奉溫庭筠為“鼻祖”,但只繼承了溫詞中偏于閨情、傷于柔弱、過于雕琢的“柔而軟”的詞風,多數作品盡力描繪婦女的容貌、服飾和情態,辭藻艷麗、色彩華美,題材狹窄、內容空虛,缺乏意境的創造。其中也有少數作品能夠脫去濃膩的脂粉氣,具有較為開闊的生活內容。而以韋莊成就較高,牛希濟、李 、孫光憲、鹿虔扆、歐陽炯等人也有不同于花間派詞風的佳作。“花間”詞風直接影響了北宋詞壇,直到清代“常州詞派”。

       

        花間詞派代表人物

        花間詞誕生于晚唐五代,花間詞派作為最早的流派之一在詞的發展史上占有重要的地位,有著巨大的影響。晚唐五代時,南方相對安定的社會環境為詞的發展提供了有利的外部條件,相繼出現了西蜀和南唐兩個詞壇中心。五代趙崇祚撰《花間詞》,收集了溫庭筠、皇甫松、孫光憲、韋莊、和凝、薛昭蘊、牛嶠、張泌、毛文錫、牛希濟、歐陽炯、顧夐、魏承班、鹿虔扆、閻選、尹鶚、毛熙震、李珣等人的500首詞作。其中除溫庭筠、皇甫松、孫光憲之外,都是集中在西蜀的文人,稱為“花間派”。

       

        “花間詞派”鼻祖溫庭筠

        溫庭筠(約812-870年),本名歧,字飛卿,唐太原祁(今山西祁縣)人,世居太原,是晚唐著名的詩人、詞家。也是當時作詞最多,對后世長短句的發展影響極大的詞人之一。

        庭筠出身于沒落的官僚貴族家庭,雖為唐初名聲顯赫的太原溫氏后裔,但是,到他父親這一代時,早是家道中落,衰微而已。他少年時代,即以善思敏悟。才華橫溢而稱著鄉里。逮至長成,更是博聞強記,通曉音律,善為管弦,而且,尤以詩詞文賦見長。世傳,庭筠每入試,押官韻作賦,從不起草, “但籠袖憑幾,每賦一詠,一吟而已”,故得“溫八吟”之號。曾經“八叉手而成八韻”,又別稱“溫八叉”。大約是因為其長相較為丑陋的緣故吧,所以時人亦有稱他“溫鐘馗”的。

       

        “花間詞派”重要人物韋莊

        韋莊(836——910),字端己,京兆杜陵(今陜西西安)人。身世孤貧而才敏過人。韋莊壯年時曾南游,足跡遍及長江南北。他著有詞集《浣花集》,全書十卷。在晚唐五代,韋莊和溫庭筠齊名,他們都是《花間集》中的代表者。韋莊的詞除了帶有花間艷詞的普遍風格之外,又有自己的獨特之處。他特別喜歡采用白描手法,能夠用它來書寫人物情感,創造出一種清雅別致的意境,從而創造了花間詞的另一風格。更多花間詞派的知識請關注習古堂國學網的相關文章。

       

        花間詞的特點

        “花間詞”是一種早期的詞,從它的來源《花間集》得名。 一般說來,詞以長短分類:“慢詞”最長,自九十至二百多事,故亦稱“長調”;自五十九至九十字為“中調”,五十九字以內為“小令”!痘ㄩg集》所收,只有小令和中調而沒有長調慢詞。這倒并不是選者對小令有偏好,故摒棄慢詞而不錄,實在因為自晚唐至五代(甚至在北宋初年)慢詞還沒有發展出來。另外一個早期選集《尊前集》也是如此,只收小令和中調?傮w上說,花間詞都是婉約詞,而婉約詞則遠不止花間詞;ㄩg詞是婉約詞第一階段產物,開婉約詞風氣之先,在詞史上具有不可替代的奠基作用。

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