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      學詩百法 簡明詞譜 花間詞 玉壺清話
      當前位置:習古堂國學網>> 唐詩宋詞>>

      如何辨別入聲字?

        如何辨別入聲字?筆者通過大量的觀察、比較,再利用現代漢語語音和借助一些方言,終于初步破解了這個長久未能解決的問題。盡管還比較粗略,但眉目已經很清晰了,如果再通過其它的途徑和采取更有效的手段進行綜合研究,我想,這個問題一定會得到徹底解決的。下面,將這個問題的研究結果概略地予以試述。

        通過對大量的入聲字進行比較和歸類,不難發現,一切入聲字的韻母都落在單韻母 a、o、e 和 i、u、ü 上,或是由其組成的簡單結合中(如 ie、üe、ua、uo及ai、ei、ao、ou 等)。對于ai、ei 和 ao、ou,(即“開”、“微”和“豪”、“侯”四韻部)我們可以利用一些方言(如吳語、粵語)將它們分別歸入歌韻(e)和波韻(o),即統歸于梭坡轍,或少數歸入乜斜轍(皆韻ie)。舉例如下:

        屬于開韻ai,常見的有:拍、白、麥、脈、摘、拆、宅、塞、窄、翟,等。

        屬于微韻ei,常見的有:北、黑、賊、給,等等。

        它們大體都可“轉音”為歌韻,即韻母“ai”、“ei”都變為同一個“e”!  “給”稍例外,它可讀作“ji”,入齊韻,或可讀作“jie”,入皆韻。

        屬于豪韻ao,常見的有:嚼、腳、角、殼、削、藥,等等。

        屬于侯韻ou,常見的有:粥、軸、熟、肉,等等。

        在方言中,它們又都可以念作波韻或皆韻的。

        除去了ai、ei 和 ao、ou這四個韻部后,即可將剩下的列成如表一:

      i

      u

      ü

      a

      (ia)

      (ua)

      o

      (uo)

      e

      ie

      üe

        顯然,這第一步就將問題的討論范圍大大地縮小了,對問題的研討和分析很有幫助。再仔細地推敲一下表一,又發現,ia和uo是不能獨立成一類的,它們分別和麻韻a和波韻e合為一整體。(只有“嗲”是例外,但這是吳方言。)

        另外,聲母能和ua相拼的只有極少數,諸如:g、k、h和zh、sh。其中,kua和zhua并無一個入聲字,而gua、hua中又僅限于少數幾個陽平聲調中(如:刮、滑)。至于shua則只有一個“刷”字(當然還有以此為“部首”的“唰”和“涮”字)。于此,剩下的就只有乜斜轍的ie和 üe以及六個單韻母了。

        通過下邊檢驗,將會進一步看到,凡是復韻母中含有“e”的(不包括鼻韻母en、eng)則它們和一切聲母相拼所讀成的字全都屬于入聲字。少數例外的情況可視其分別劃歸為麻韻(如:遮、車、舍、斜,等)或開韻(如:街、鞋、界,等)。這樣,真正需要我們討論的就只有六個單韻母了。于是,問題就歸結到了最簡單的程度,但這卻是最復雜的部分。

        在進一步討論之前應該先對普通話中的聲母發音作個概略的分析,這對正題的探討是有幫助的。把發音部位和發音方法綜合起來,可列成如表二:

      普通話聲母發音表(表二)

      發音方法

      發音部位

      清塞音

      清塞擦音

      不送氣

      送氣

      不送氣

      送氣

      雙唇音

      b

      p

      m

      唇齒音

      f

      舌尖音

      d

      t

      n

      l

      舌根音

      g

      k

      h

      舌面音

      j

      q

      x

      翹舌音

      zh

      ch

      sh

      r

      平舌音

      z

      c

      s

        再將二十一個聲母與六個單韻母列成表三

      入聲字聲韻歸納表(表三)

      a(ia)

      o(uo)

      e

      i

      u

      ü

      b

      陽平

      陽平

      陽平

      陽平

      p

      (無)

      陰平

      m

      無(抹、。

      全(除磨)

      f

      除陰平、上聲

      d

      陽平

      陽平

      陽平(全)

      陽平

      陽平

      t

      上、去

      去(全)

      (無)

      陰平

      n

      去(全)

      l

      全(除拉)

      去(全)

      去(除麗、利)

      去(除慮)

      g

      陽平

      陽平

      k

      喀、咯

      去(全)

      陰平

      h

      陰、陽、去

      無(忽)

      j

      陽平

      陽平

      陽平

      q

      (無)

      (無)

      x

      陽平(除霞)

      陽平

      zh

      陽平

      陽平

      ch

      無(察)

      sh

      殺、煞、霎

      陽平(除時)

      陽平

      r

      去(全)

      去(全)

      去(全)

      z

      陽平

      陽平

      c

      去(撮)

      (無)

      s

      縮、索

      去(俗)

        如果能仔細地觀察和對比之后,將會發現:

        一、每一大欄的第一欄,都是由高升調(陽平)組成。(至于包括全部的更不待言)它們是b、d、g、j、zh、z。對照一下表二,全是屬于不送氣的清塞音或清塞擦音。

        二、由濁音聲母 m、n、l、r 與這六個單韻母拼成的字中,凡入全降調(去聲)的都歸屬入聲字。

        三、從豎向看,則一眼看出,e 與任何聲母相拼,都成了入聲。當然有“例外”,那就是如“哥、科、和;遮、車、舍”等,不過,那是可以分別剔入波韻和麻韻的。后三種前邊已經提到過。前三種,如“哥”可念作go,“科”念作ko,“和”念作ho。

        以上三點是顯而易見的,其它的類別則需要加倍留意和仔細檢索。不妨隨便檢點一下,雖不成體例,然尚可借以窺其一斑。

        四、上邊已討論了不送氣的幾個清音,現在再來看看送氣的情形。它們分別為 p、t、k、q、ch、c。這里還需分四種情形討論。

        1. 當這幾個聲母與 a、o、e 相拼時,則屬于入聲的大多都落在全降調上。(除非沒有,如:pà、kà、chà )

        2. 在支韻和齊韻中,等于沒有一個是入聲字。(只有 chì赤例外)這里,pi劈、ti剔、qi乞,在吳語中竟可念作pie撇、tie鐵、qie切;浾Z亦然,幾無區別。而ci賜古通錫,它也能念作xie歇。故而在這里被剔了出去,造成了所謂的“空白區”。由此也得到了一點啟發,凡是舌尖韻母璱(前)或璱(后)在與送氣的清音聲母相拼時不能“轉化”為皆韻(ie)的,則一定不是入聲字。反之則然。

        3. 再來看模韻,它又可分為兩種情形。

        甲、在 pu、tu、ku 中,大抵上只有高平調(陰平)才能算作入聲字。

        乙、在 chu與cu 中只有去聲才能認作入聲字。q與u不能相拼,故缺一項。

        4. 魚韻中,則蕩然無存。僅有的幾字,如:曲、屈,在吳語中是讀作que。

        五、 對于唇齒音,也有個明顯的標志,即:

        1. 唇齒分離時,如:fa、fo,則其必為入聲。

        2. 唇齒相依時,如:fu,則一般不易區分。不過,其陰平和上聲卻能肯定不是入聲,只能在陽平和去聲中去辨認。

        六、對于零聲母Y、W的幾種情形:

        ya 歸入聲的只有三個字:壓、押、鴨。

        ye 去聲的全部是入聲字。(“夜”除外,它應讀作yà。)

        yi 較復雜,四聲中除陽平外,都有入聲字。

        yue 全部是入聲字。

        yo 該拼音只有兩個字:唷、喲,當屬入聲字。

        wa 只有一個入聲字:挖。

        wo 去聲部分皆為入聲字。

        wu 屋、兀、勿、物等少數幾個為入聲字。

        至此,問題已大部解決,剩下的只是些零星的部分,對此還有待于進一步的研究。不過,在作完全解決之前,還是有一些簡單的也是行之有效的辦法的,雖然是“笨”了些。那就是依偏旁、部首來推知一些入聲字,這在王力的小冊子中已講得很清楚,不再贅述。應該指出的是,從諧聲偏旁進行類推的辦法帶有相當的猜測性,有時就不靈,因此不能作為主導,只能作為一種輔助手段使用。其他更好的辦法有沒有呢?應該會有的,這有待于我們去繼續探索。

        通過以上討論,還使我們想到,是不是可以對現有的一些語音進行適當的調整?筆者通過反復試驗,認為只要稍為變動一下,就會使很多的入聲字都納入了“規范”,使“表三”更顯示出它的規律性來。依此來檢驗入聲字,將會感到毫不費力。當然,這只是一種設想,未免太牽強了些。語言的問題是社會的問題,總不能為了某種特殊的需要而加以隨意改換吧?誠如斯大林所指出的那樣:“沒有特別必要的時候,歷史是決不會作什么重大的改革的。”(見《馬克思主義和語言學問題》)

        關于入聲字的辯認問題,本人就提出這么一些看法。限于學識水平,所論及的問題還不很全面,還需要進一步的充實。至于疏漏謬誤之處,亦所難免,懇請方家予以指教。推薦閱讀:《入聲字總結

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